Kamis, 19 Juli 2012

Management Of Childhood

Bismillahirrohmanirrohim...............

Asslamualaikum wr wb


Overview of Management

General Management
Agencies or units of early childhood as a form of early childhood education services in the path of non-formal education which prioritizes activities to play while learning. Organization of early childhood unit can be implemented by both private institutions, governments, community organizations and individuals who have a concern for early childhood. Each organization of early childhood programs both institutions and individuals must obtain permission from the establishment of District Education Office / Municipal or other agency designated by the local government. The requirements to be met in the submission of operating licenses early childhood, namely:

A. Letter of request to the Head of the District Education Office, Head Cq PLSPO known by village heads, subdistrict and district overseers PLS.
2. Notaries deed of establishment of the foundation.
3. Form and the name of the institution
4. Vision and mission agencies
5. Teaching program
6. Facilities and infrastructure
7. The data contain information:

- Data manager, educator, caregiver (a copy of SK appointment, certificates, the number of teaching hours)
- Data learners
- Plan the location
- Building ownership certificate
- Letter of environmental permits known RT / Kadus / Ward
- Organizational Structure

The validity period of operating licenses early childhood is 3 years from the date of issuance of the Decree, or adapted to the policies established by the related agencies. Due to the fact that each of the District and the City has its own policies (regional autonomy).
An educational institution in order to be able to effectively and efficiently it is necessary to the arrangement, arrangements, management and other similar activities. These steps should be drafted in a systematic manner. Management can be defined as the management, in which case management agency focused on four components, namely:

A. Workforce management, Teachers and Education Personnel.
2. Learners
3. Infrastructure
4. Financial Management
Existence of the institution itself may be constructed by defining a clear plan. Matters relating to the above is:
A. The presence of a Program Management Education
2. The regulation of Human Resource Management
3. The regulation of Financial Management
4. The existence of management rules Sarpras

Power Management Teachers and Education Personnel
In education, the management of this workforce development-oriented education, which the arable fields and the output is clearly different from the cultivated fields and the output of government enterprises and other institutions. This is consistent with the characteristics of educational activities that made the difference in activity in other fields. Likewise with the management practices of educators, however could not be fully equated with management practices in other organizations labor.

Early childhood educators as a learning resource is one component in determining the success of the program and dizziness since early childhood educators directly involved and responsible for the success of the learning process. The Law. 20 of 2003 on National Education System Article 1 paragraph (6) stated that educators are highly qualified educational staff as a teacher, lecturer, counselor, civil learning, lecturer, tutor, instructor, facilitator, and other designations in accordance with the particulars as well as participating in education.
Dedi Supriadi (1999:176) states that early childhood educators should be prepared in a professional manner, in which a professional has at least three main elements:

A. Adequate education, specially prepared by educational institutions with certain qualifications.
2. Expertise in the field.
3. Commitment to duty.

Competence of early childhood educators
The results of the National Seminar and Workshop on early childhood conducted by the Directorate General of Th PLS 2003, concluded that the educator or professional educators and semi-professional in early childhood education is recommended to have a number of academic competence is competence, professional, personal, and sosiointerpersonal (social) .
Management Educators
A. Recruitment / Recruitment of Personnel
2. Development
3. Dismissal / Mutation
Recruitment of Workers Education
Recruitment of teaching staff are efforts made by institutions or foundations to acquire the necessary teaching staff.

Important steps in the hiring process as a continuation of planning educators, namely:
a. Disseminate announcements about the needs of educators in various types and qualifications as the planning process that has been established, it can be through media publications or limited recommendation, or cooperation with other agencies.
b. Determine the requirements for applicants in accordance with the requirements set out both administrative and academic.
c. Conducting the test by using a standard selection and selection techniques or particular ways needed.
Standards of selection for example:

- Age - Communication Skills
- Physical fitness - Motivation
- Education - Interests
- Experience - Attitudes and values ​​nialai
- The goals - Mental Health
- Appearance - Deserving work at the World Education
- General Knowledge - Other factors that determined the ruler

Coaching / Teaching Manpower Development
Coaching or teaching staff development is an attempt to utilize, promote and enhance the productivity of each of educators who work there. The purpose of this training activity is the growing ability of each of educators that includes the growth of their knowledge, insight into the thinking, attitudes toward work and skills in the daily execution of their duties so that productivity can be improved a coaching program educators are usually held on the assumption of various deficiencies seen from prosecution organization, or because of the will and needs to grow and develop remedy among educational staff itself.

The principles that must be considered in the arrangements for the development of educators, namely:
a. Educator of educators should be performed for all types of educators.
b. Educators coaching change-oriented behavior in order to improve the professional capabilities and technical support to the implementation or daily tasks according to their respective positions denagn.
c. Development of educators held to encourage increased contribution of each individual to the organization of education or school system, and provide other forms of awards, welfare and intensive in return for securing the optimal economic and social needs of social-psychological needs.
d. Development initiated and directed educators to educate and train a person before and after the post / position, either because the needs are oriented towards job title / position in the future, (eg internships).
e. Coaching educators are actually designed to meet the growing demands in the office, professional development, problem solving, remedial activities, maintaining motivation and resilience of educational organizations.

A more popular in fostering and developing educators through courses conducted (inservice training) both in order to refresh (refreshing) and in order to improve their skills (up-grading) or together (collaborative effort), for example, following the events or opportunities, one-service training, on the job training, seminars, workshops, panel discussions, meetings, symposiums, conferences, and so forth.

Termination of Labor Educators
Dismissal of educators is a process that makes one educators can no longer perform the job duties or functions of his office either temporarily or permanently. Many reasons why a teaching staff quit his job (FLE), namely:
A. Assessment of the relevant performance declined despite being given warnings by the employer.
2. Due to his own request to stop
3. Because reaching the retirement age according to the applicable provisions
4. because of the simplification of the organization which led to a simplification of the task in one other party obtained the excess labor
5. Because the relevant conduct fraud or criminal acts, such as violation of applicable regulations as violating the oath of office, violated the rules of discipline, corruption and so on.
6. Because it is concerned not enough good physical and spiritual, as flawed as a matter that causes no longer able to work, suffer from diseases that endanger themselves and the environment, changing the memory and so on.
7. For desertion in time intervals as a violation of applicable regulations.
8. Due to death or due to missing as stated by the authorities.
9. Because the permission to develop themselves.
Administration needed for management educators, namely:
Personnel Administration:
- Curriculum Vitae
- Diploma
- KK
- Medical History
Institutional administration:
- List of staff present
- Data staff
- SK Teaching
- Form work out
- Form for permission
- List of receipt of a salary
- Form a periodic evaluation of staff

Management of Students
Understanding of Students Managed
Management of learners according Hendayat Soemanto Soetopo and Wanty (1982) is an arrangement or arrangements relating to all activities of students, which began with the influx of students to exit students from a school or an institution.
Thus the management of learners were not in the form of record keeping / data management students only, but covers a wider aspect, which can be used operationally to help smooth the growth and development efforts of students through the educational process at school.

Recruitment of Students
Each new school year, the school occupied by new students. Before this activity begins, the principal first establish the committee. Activities are prepared as follows:
A. Registration
Schedules acceptance of learners is distributed to the public, through mass media bias, school announcements, distribution of brochures, open houses, exhibits, etc..
2. Registration requirements
Registration requirements specified by the agency in accordance with the provisions set forth. For example:
- Fill out the form
- Collecting pictures
- Pay Administration
- And the other requirements prescribed by the agency deems necessary.
3. Selection
Selection is carried out when the number of registrants exceeds the available capacity.
4. Announcement
After the announcement of acceptance of new students, is socialized school rules that must be met by new learners.
Recording and reporting student progress peserat
This activity is necessary since it is received at the school until they graduate or leave school.
Diperluakn recording and equipment include:

A. Parent Book
The book is called fundamental or stambuk book. This book contains the records of students who go on these sekoalh. Each pencatatn learners with basic or stambuk denagn numbers, and other data is also equipped with individual learners.
2. Klaper book
Registration of this book may be taken from a book, but the writing arranged alphabetically. This is to facilitate the retrieval of learners at any time if necessary.
3. Presence List
The attendance of students is very important since the frequency of attendance of each student can be known / controlled.
4. Personal notebook learners
Learner logbook is more lengkaplagi of data every peserat students. This book contains among other things: the identity of students, information about family circumstances, physical and health condition, history of education and learning outcomes, the data of psychology (attitudes, interests, and ideals) and also activities outside of school.
5. The book list protege mutation
To know the exact number of students, school or institute should have a book / list of mutations learners. List of mutations was used to record the entry and exit of students in each month, semester or year. This is because the condition number of students is not fixed, there is a transfer student and someone goes out, including those who continue their education at the next level.
6. Learners progress report
- Through communication book is provided on a daily, weekly or monthly basis the contents of information from teachers about kegatan followed by the child and the child's developmental progress during the following school activities.
- Report of progress of students is obtained from the results of teacher observations and analysis activities of the students so parents can get information about the actual development of the child.

Infrastructure Management
The meaning of educational infrastructure is the building of schools and school furniture tools that play a role in teaching and learning, although indirectly.
Outline of Infrastructure management includes the following matters, namely:

A. Determination of Needs
Prior to the specific equipment or other facilities should first see that there is a wealth of new tools to determine what is required by the interests of education at the school.
2. The procurement process
In an effort procurement process can be obtained by means of education that can be taken several ways, namely:
a. The cost of government purchases
b. Purchase at a cost of SPP
c. BP3 or assistance from the school committee
d. Assistance from other communities.
3. Usage
Terms of use or the use of the equipment can be mainly divided into:
a. Items Out of Use
b. Items not Wear Out
The use of consumable items should be used optimally and accountable in every quarter. While the use of consumable items or goods do not remain accountable once a year so it is necessary to the maintenance and the items referred to the inventory.
4. Recording / maintenance
For the purposes of management and administration of recording instruments is provided in the form:
a. Inventory books
b. Purchase the book
c. User Removal
d. Printed cards
5. Accountability
The use of inventory items should be accounted for by the school to report the use of these items are addressed to the agency supervisor.

Financial Management
Each unit of work is always related to finance, as well as schools. Financial resources from education:
State budget, among others:
a. Regular budget, for example salaries, exam fees, the cost of building maintenance, etc..
b. Development budget, for example physical activity is the manufacture of the building, for the non-physical or Training Training of educators.
Community Fund
Which include public funds, namely:
a. Donations Development of Education (SPP)
b. BP3 fee / school committee
c. Or grant aid and other legal according to existing rules.
Financial management procedures are:
A. Budgeting / Budgeting
Included in this activity is extracting resources and designing the use of these funds. Creating a Budget and Spending Plan Schools (School Budget)
2. Accounting / Bookkeeping
Namely the use of funds for the transaction pencatan accountability.
3. Auditing
Accountability or checks between reporting / recording with actual field results.
Instruments of financial administration, among others:
A. General ledger
2. Cash book tabelaris
3. Requisitions / receiving salaries (by the finance section)
4. (SPJ), eg, receipts, payroll receipts list
5. Payment list of SPP
6. Revenue Expenditure Budget Plan dab School (School Budget)

Mapping School (School mapping)
Methods of educational planning in the form of micro-structuring or restructuring process of the new network with greater capacity, where there are sources that can be used optimally, in addition to the quality of education that sought a more weighty and have relevance to development.

The purpose of the school mapping are:
Reforming the school network
Improve the quality of education
Planning in determining the location of schools (open new schools Branch)

Things that need to be considered in school mapping, namely:
A. Residential developments
2. Development of school-age children
3. Educational institutions that already exist
4. Transport network
5. Utilization of facilities
6. Implementation of the curriculum.
If the agency will build a school, the optimal target that must be considered are:
a. Build a school place that many school-age children
b. Building schools that do not have school places especially in remote areas
c. Not to reduce the number of students in other schools that already exist.
In determining the ideal location for a new school there are some things that should be addressed:
a. Easy to reach
b. Far from the crowded places
c. Take a long time does not exceed 15 minutes or 1.5 km journey
d. Enough students
e. Not contrary to the development of thinking (primitive)

Used to determine the area of ​​the formula:

E = p. r2. d

With the caption:
E = Number of students in the area of ​​the
p = coefficient for the service area of ​​a circle
d = density of population of school age / Km2
r = the furthest distance from school

Communication Education Organization
It is no less important in the process of management education is a process of organizational communication. Communication where the organization should be well maintained so that the continuity of institutions is growing.
No group or institution that can survive without communication, communication provides the necessary information to individuals and groups make decisions through submission of data. The definition of organizational communication is the process of delivering educational messages from other parties in one kepihak environmental education organization.

Direction of communication
Communication can flow in a vertical or horizontal, for vertical dimension can be divided further into a downward and upward.

Down
Communication that flows from one level in the group or organization the lower the level is called the communication down. This pattern of agency leaders and managers use to set goals, giving work instructions, policies and procedures kebawahan inform, and express feedback on performance.

To top
Communication flows up to a higher level within the institution or organization. This communication is used to provide feedback to the supervisor, inform them of progress to goals, and communicate the problems they face. Communications to the lead managers are aware of the feelings of the employee towards his job, his coworkers, and organizations in general. Managers also rely upon communication to get ideas on how to improve conditions. Some examples of communication to the top of the performance reports prepared by lower management to be reviewed by top management, suggestion boxes, surveys the employees, grievance procedures, discussion of a subordinate supervisor.

Horizontal communication
When communication takes place between members of the same working group, working group members the same level or among any horizontally equivalent personelyang, named as horizontal communication. Horizontal communication is needed to save time and facilitate coordination.
Personal communication between
How to convey the members in an institution of ideas among them? There are three basic methods used are oral communication, written, and non-verbal.
A. Oral Communication
Primary vehicle for delivering the message is verbal communication, speech, conversation of two people, group discussions, informal rumors and rumors are popular forms of oral communication.
The advantage of oral communication is the speed and the resulting feedback, while the loss of oral communication is when the message is passed a number of people. The more people who passed the message, the greater the likelihood of distortion or error.

2. Written Communication
Written communications include memos, letters, email, facsimile transmission, organizational newsletters, bulletins dipapan announcement, or other equipment that is sent via words or written symbols. Advantages of communication in this way is because the tangible and verifiable, messages can be stored for a long time and is not limited. But communication also has some disadvantages that include written messages will take longer, but it is another major drawback is in terms of feedback.
3. Non-Verbal Communication
Non-verbal communication includes gestures, intonation or emphasis we give to words, facial expressions, and the physical distance between sender and receiver. It could be said that every body movement has meaning and no movement is incidental.

Barriers to Communication
A number of barriers in communication can interfere with or slow down the effective communication. Barriers are classified into:
a. Barriers to Personal / Individual
Barriers is due to several factors, including, namely:
• Sematik or language differences
• Information overload
• Barriers to behavior, including: anxiety, authoritarian attitudes, self-centered attitude, different perceptions, and information overloaded.

b. Organizational Barriers
The causes of communication barriers that come from organizations or institutions that Sitem bureaucracy and organizational structures that are less suitable for all members of the organization.
c. Technical Barriers
Included in the technical barriers to communication errors caused by poor facilities, techniques and methods of communication are less precise.



REFERENCES :

B. Suryosubroto. , 2004. Manjemen Education in Schools. New York: Rineka Notices.
Prop government. DIY, Education, BPKB DIY. , 2006. Design Studies Early Childhood Education Program (early childhood). Yogyakarta.
Robbins, Stephen P. , 2006. Organizational Behavior. Cet. Tenth. New York: Index.
Lecturer Department of AP UPI team. , 2005. Education Management. London

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Wasslamualaikum wr wb
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